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Fine point


cooking techniques   A - Z


  • Acidulate – to use an acid (such as that found in citrus juice, vinegar, or wine) to prevent browning, alter flavour, or make an item safe for canning

  • Al dente – to cook food (typically pasta) to the point where it is tender but not mushy. Al dente describes pasta or rice that is cooked to be firm to the bite. The etymology is Italian "to the tooth".

  • Amandine – a culinary term indicating a garnish of almonds. Dishes of this sort are usually cooked with butter and seasonings, then sprinkled with whole or flaked, toasted almonds. The term is often spelled almondine in American cookbooks.

  • Amylolytic process – used in the brewing of alcohol from grains.  Amylotyc process or amylolysis is the conversion of starch into sugar by the action of acids or enzymes such as amylase.

  • Anti-griddle – a kitchen appliance that flash freezes or semi-freezes foods placed on its chilled metal top. The device was inspired by a similar appliance used by Grant Achatz in one of his restaurants.

  • Aspic  is a dish in which ingredients are set into a gelatin made from a meat stock or consommé. Aspic can also be referred to as aspic gelée or aspic jelly. Non-savory, sweet dishes, often made with commercial gelatin mixes without stock or consommé, are usually called jello salads in the United States, or gelatin salads elsewhere

  • Au gratin is a culinary technique in which an ingredient is topped with a browned crust, often using breadcrumbs, grated cheese, egg or butter. Gratin originated in French cuisine and is usually prepared in a shallow dish of some kind. A gratin is baked or cooked under an overhead grill or broiler to form a golden crust on top and is often served in its baking dish

  • Au jus is a French culinary term meaning "with juice". It refers to meat dishes prepared or served together with a light gravy, or broth, made from the fluids secreted by the meat as it is cooked. In French cuisine, cooking au jus is a natural way to enhance the flavour of dishes, mainly chicken, veal, and lamb. In American cuisine, the term is mostly used to refer to a light sauce for beef recipes, which may be served with the food or placed on the side for dipping.

  • Au poivre – a food item (typically steak) that is crusted with ground black pepper prior to cooking


  • Backwoods cooking – a method of cooking without the use of utensils that commonly takes place in the backwoods, often in combination with wild or conventional camping

  • Baghaar  is a cooking technique used in the cuisines of India, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, in which whole spices are roasted briefly in oil or ghee to liberate essential oils from cells and thus enhance their flavours, before being poured, together with the oil, into a dish. Tempering is also practiced by dry roasting whole spices in a pan before grinding the spices.

  • Bain-marie - a method of cooking where a container of food is placed in or above boiling water in order to heat gradually or to keep warm.

  • Baking is a method of preparing food that uses dry heat, normally in an oven, but can also be done in hot ashes, or on hot stones. The most common baked item is bread but many other types of foods are baked. Heat is gradually transferred "from the surface of cakes, cookies, and breads to their center.

  • Barding - wrapping meat in fat during roasting.

  • Barbecuing - slow cooking meat or fish with indirect heat and smoke.

  • Baste - to periodically pour liquid over food as it roasts.

  • Blanching – a food, usually a vegetable or fruit, is scalded in boiling water, removed after a brief, timed interval, and finally plunged into iced water or placed under cold running water (shocking or refreshing) to halt the cooking process.

  • Boiling is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapour pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmosphere.

  • Braising – a combination-cooking method that uses both wet and dry heats: typically, the food is first seared at a high temperature, then finished in a covered pot at a lower temperature while sitting in some (variable) amount of liquid (which may also add flavor).

  • Bricolage - the preparation of a meal from whatever ingredients happen to be on hand.

  • Brine - to soak food in salted water.

  • Broasting – a method of cooking chicken and other foods using a pressure fryer and condiments.

  • Browning – the process of partially cooking the surface of meat to help remove excessive fat and to give the meat a brown color crust and flavor through various browning reactions.


  • Candy making – the preparation of candies and sugar confections made by dissolving sugar in water or milk to form a syrup, which is boiled until it reaches the desired concentration or starts to caramelize

  • Caramelization – the browning of sugar, a process used extensively in cooking for the resulting nutty flavor and brown color

  • Carry over cooking – the phenomenon that food retains heat and continues to cook even after being removed from the source of heat.

  • Casserole – food cooked and served in a casserole dish

  • Charbroiling – a commonly used cooking device consisting of a series of grates or ribs that can be heated using a variety of means, and is used in both residential and commercial applications for a variety of cooking operations

  • Cheesemaking – the craft of making cheese

  • Chiffonade - To cut leaves into long thin strips

  • Chinese cooking techniques – a set of methods and techniques traditionally used in Chinese cuisine. The cooking techniques can either be grouped into ones that use a single cooking method or a combination of wet and dry cooking methods.

  • Red cooking – also called Chinese stewing, red stewing, red braising and flavour potting, is a slow braising Chinese cooking technique that imparts a red color to the prepared food.

  • Velveting - coating pieces of raw meat or poultry in a mixture of cornstarch and liquid prior to cooking

  • Clay pot cooking – a process of cooking food in a pot made from unglazed & natural clay

  • Coddling – heating food in water kept just below the boiling point. Coddled egg may be prepared using this method.

  • Concasse – to rough chop any ingredient, usually vegetables. This term is particularly applied to tomatoes, where tomato concasse is a tomato that has been peeled, seeded (seeds and skins removed), and chopped to specified dimensions

  • Conche – a surface scraping mixer and agitator that evenly distributes cocoa butter within chocolate, and may act as a 'polisher' of the particles

  • Confit – a generic term for various kinds of food that have been cooked in grease, oil or sugar water (syrup)

  • Cooking with alcohol – many dishes incorporate alcoholic beverages into the food itself

  • Creaming – refers to several different culinary processes in baking, cooking and milk production             to combine ingredients (typically butter and sugar) into a smooth paste                                                           to cook meat or vegetables in a thick dairy-based sauce                                                                                     (creamed corn) to mix puréed corn kernels with whole corn kernels                                                       (cream) the butterfat-heavy portion of whole milk that, due to its fat content, separates from the milk   and rises to the top

  • Croquette - a small roll made of finely chopped meat and / or vegetables that is breaded and fried

  • Culinary triangle – a concept described by anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss involving three types of cooking; these are boiling, roasting, and smoking, usually done to meat.

  • Curdling – the breaking of an emulsion or colloid into large parts of different composition through the physico-chemical processes of flocculation, creaming, and coalescence. Curdling is intentional and desirable in making cheese and tofu; unintentional and undesirable in making sauces and custards.

  • Cured fish - fish preserved by fermentation, pickling, smoking, or some combination of these techniques

  • Curing – various food preservation and flavoring processes of foods such as meat, fish and vegetables, by the addition of a combination of salt, nitrates, nitrite, or sugar. Many curing processes also involve smoking, the process of flavoring, or cooking. The use of food dehydration was the earliest form of food curing.


  • Deep frying - to cook by submerging food in hot fat or oil

  • Deglazing  is a cooking technique for removing and dissolving browned food residue from a pan to flavor sauces, soups, and gravies.

  • Degreasing  - often called defatting or fat trimming, is the removal of fatty acids from an object. In culinary science, degreasing is done with the intention of reducing the fat content of a meal.

  • Dough sheeting – used by (industrial) bakeries and rolls out dough into a (consistent) dough sheet with a desired even dough thickness prior to baking

  • Dredging - to coat the exterior of food with a dry material (such as breadcrumbs) prior to cooking

  • Dry roasting is a process by which heat is applied to dry foodstuffs without the use of oil or water as a carrier. Unlike other dry heat methods, dry roasting is used with foods such as nuts and seeds, in addition to some eaten insects such as house crickets. Dry-roasted foods are stirred as they are roasted to ensure even heating.

  • Drying – to preserve food by removing moisture, either by use of a modern food dehydrator or by the traditional method of allowing sun and wind to evaporate moisture

  • Dum pukht – or slow oven cooking, is a cooking technique associated with the Awadh region of India, in which meat and vegetables are cooked over a very low flame, generally in sealed containers.

  • Dutch oven cooking – A Dutch oven is well suited for long, slow cooking, such as in making roasts, stews, and casseroles. Virtually any recipe that can be cooked in a conventional oven can be cooked in a Dutch oven. They are often used in outdoor cooking, such as when camping.


  • Earth oven – one of the most simple and long-used cooking structures. At its simplest, it is a pit in the ground used to trap heat and bake, smoke, or steam food.

  • Egg wash – usually beaten eggs sometimes mixed with another liquid, usually water or milk, which is brushed onto the surface of a pastry before baking

  • Emulsify - to combine two liquids that have a natural tendency to separate (such as oil and vinegar) into one homogeneous mass

  • En papillote – food is put into a folded pouch or parcel and then baked

  • En vessie – a cooking method in which a meat or other dish is cooked in a (pig) bladder

  • Engastration – a method of cooking in which the cook stuffs the remains of one animal into another animal

  • Engine Cooking – cooking food from the excess heat of an internal combustion engine, typically the engine of a car or a truck

  • Escagraph - writing made out of food


  • Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions. Fermentation usually implies that the action of microorganisms is desired.

  • Fillet - to remove bones from meat or fish

  • Flambé - to pour alcohol over food and then ignite

  • Flattop grill is a cooking appliance that resembles a griddle but performs differently because the heating element is circular rather than straight. This heating technology creates an extremely hot and even cooking surface, as heat spreads in a radial fashion over the surface. Flattop grills have been around for hundreds of years in various forms and evolved in a number of cultures.

  • Foam is a gelling or stabilizing agent in which air is suspended. Foams have been present in many forms over the history of cooking, such as whipped cream, meringue and mousse. 

  • Food preservation                                                                                                                                                    Canning – involves the cooking of foods in sealed cans, among other processes                                    Curing                                                                                                                                                                      Home ca

  • Fondue is a Swiss melted cheese dish served in a communal pot over a portable stove (réchaud) heated with a candle or spirit lamp, and eaten by dipping bread into the cheese using long-stemmed forks.

  • Fricassee  or fricassée is a method of cooking meat in which it is cut up and braised, and served with its sauce.

  • Frost - to apply icing ("frosting") to the exterior of baked goods (such as cakes or cookies)

  • Fruit preserves are preparations of fruits, vegetables and sugar, often stored in glass jam jars, Weck jars and Mason jars.

  • Frying - to cook food in oil

  • Chicken Frying – battering and pan-frying a piece of beefsteak


  • Garnish - to add a (typically edible) decorative element to a plate of food prior to serving

  • Gentle frying  or low-temperature frying is an oil- or fat-based cooking method used for relatively fragile or starchy foods. While gentle frying is most notably used to cook fried eggs, it is also used for delicate fish, tender cuts of meat, sausages, and as a first step in fried potatoes.

  • Glazing in cooking is a coating of a glossy, often sweet, sometimes savoury, substance applied to food typically by dipping, dripping, or with a brush. Egg whites and basic icings are both used as glazes. 

  • Gratin (Au Gratin)

  • Grilling is a form of cooking that involves dry heat applied to the surface of food, commonly from above, below or from the side. Grilling usually involves a significant amount of direct, radiant heat, and tends to be used for cooking meat and vegetables quickly.


  • Hāngi – a traditional New Zealand Māori method of cooking food using heated rocks buried in a pit oven still used for special occasions.

  • Hibachi is a traditional Japanese heating device.

  • High-altitude cooking  is cooking done at altitudes that are considerably higher than sea level. At elevated altitudes, any cooking that involves boiling or steaming generally requires compensation for lower temperatures because the boiling point of water is lower at higher altitudes due to the decreased atmospheric pressure. The effect starts to become relevant at altitudes above approximately 2,000 feet (610 m). Means of compensation include extending cooking times or using a pressure cooker to provide higher pressure inside the cooking vessel and hence higher temperatures.

  • Homogenization - Milk is a white, nutrient-rich liquid food produced in the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for infant mammals before they are able to digest other types of food.

  • Hot salt frying  and hot sand frying are cooking techniques used by street-side food vendors in Pakistan, China and India. Hot sand frying is an old cooking technique, and is used in villages throughout Asia and other parts of the world. Many foods are fried with hot salt or sand, even in common households.

  • Huff paste was a cooking technique involved making a stiff pie shell or coffyn using a mixture of flour, suet, and boiling water. The pastry when cooked created a tough protective layer around the food inside. When cooked, the pastry would be discarded as it was virtually inedible. However, the shell became soaked with the meat juices and was sometimes eaten by house servants after the meal had concluded.


  • Indirect grilling is a barbecue cooking technique in which the food is placed to the side of or above the heat source instead of directly over the flame as is more common. This can be achieved by igniting only some burners on a gas barbecue or by piling coals to one side of a charcoal pit. A drip tray is placed below the food to prevent fat from the food igniting and generating a direct flame. Indirect grilling is designed to cook larger or tougher foods that would burn if cooked using a direct flame. This method of cooking generates a more moderate temperature and allows for an easier introduction of wood smoke for flavoring.

  • Infusion – the process of extracting chemical compounds or flavors from plant material in a solvent such as water, oil or alcohol, by allowing the material to remain suspended in the solvent over time (a process often called steeping). A common example of an infusion is tea, and many herbal teas are prepared in the same way.


  • Jugging – is the process of stewing whole animals, mainly game or fish, for an extended period in a tightly covered container such as a casserole or an earthenware jug.

  • Juicing

  • Julienning - to cut food (typically vegetables) into long thin strips


  • Kalua – a traditional Hawaiian cooking method that utilizes an imu, a type of underground oven

  • Karaage – a Japanese cooking technique in which various foods — most often chicken, but also other meat and fish — are deep fried in oil, similar to the preparation of tempura.

  • Kho – a cooking technique in Vietnamese cuisine in which a protein source such as fish, shrimp, poultry, pork, beef, or fried tofu is braised on low heat in a mixture of fish sauce, sugar, and water or a water substitute such as young coconut juice. It's similar to stew.

  • Kinpira – a Japanese cooking style that can be summarized as a technique of "sauté and simmer". It is commonly used to cook root vegetables and other foods.


  • Larding - to thread strips of chilled pork fat through a roast

  • Liquid nitrogen can be used for flash freezing and shattering

  • Low-temperature cooking


  • Maceration

  • Marination

  • Meat cooking techniques

  • Microwave cooking

  • Mincing

  • Mongolian barbecue

  • Mother sauces - in French cooking, the five "fundamental" sauces (béchamel, espagnole, velouté, hollandaise, and tomate) as defined by Auguste Escoffier


  • Nappage

  • Nixtamalization – a process for the preparation of maize (corn), or other grain, in which the grain is soaked and cooked in an alkaline solution, usually limewater, and hulled.


  • Once-a-month cooking (OAMC) – Preparing and cooking all the meals you need for an entire month in a single day.

  • Outdoor cooking – Involves techniques and specialized equipment for preparing food in outdoors environments. Equipment used includes mess kits and portable stoves, among others.


  • Pan frying – characterized by the use of minimal cooking oil or fat (compared to shallow frying or deep frying); typically using just enough oil to lubricate the pan

  • Parbaking

  • Parboiling

  • Pascalization

  • Paste

  • Pasteurization

  • Flash pasteurization

  • Pasteurized eggs

  • Pellicle – a skin or coating of proteins on the surface of meat, fish or poultry, which allow smoke to better adhere the surface of the meat during the smoking process

  • Pickling

  • Pig roast

  • Poaching

  • Pre-ferment

  • Pressure cooking – the process of cooking food, using water or other cooking liquid, in a sealed vessel—known as a pressure cooker, which does not permit air or liquids to escape below a pre-set pressure.

  • Pressure frying

  • Proofing

  • Pulling

  • Purée


  • Reconstitution - the process of assembling a palatable food product from processed sources (for example, adding water to concentrated juice or forming meat slurry into chicken nuggets)

  • Reduction

  • Rendering

  • Ricing

  • Rillettes

  • Roasting

  • Robatayaki

  • Rotisserie, also known as spit-roasting

  • Roux -equal quantities of flour and fat cooked together to a sandy texture used to make a thickening agent


  • Sautéing

  • Score - to cut shallow grooves, often in a diamond pattern, into a cut of meat

  • Schwenker

  • Searing – a technique used in grilling, baking, braising, roasting, sautéing, etc., in which the surface of the food (usually meat, poultry or fish) is cooked at high temperature until a crust forms from browning.

  • Seasoning

  • Separating eggs

  • Shallow frying

  • Shirred eggs

  • Shrivelling

  • Shuck - to remove the outer casing of a food item, such as an ear of corn or the shell of an oyster

  • Simmering

  • Skimming

  • Slow cooker

  • Smoking

  • Smothering

  • Souring

  • Sous-vide

  • Thermal immersion circulator

  • Spatchcock – poultry or game that has been prepared for roasting or grilling by removing the backbone, and sometimes the sternum of the bird and flattening it out before cooking.

  • Spherification

  • Steaming

  • Food steamer

  • Steeping

  • Stewing

  • Stir frying

  • Straight dough

  • Stuffing – an edible food mixture, often a starch, used to fill a cavity in another food item

  • Sugar panning

  • Supreme – has different meanings in cooking and culinary arts depending upon the food type

  • Sweating – the gentle heating of vegetables in a little oil or butter, which usually results in tender, sometimes translucent, pieces

  • Swissing

  • Syringe – for injecting fillings in foods


  • Tandoor – a cylindrical clay or metal oven used in cooking and baking in Southern, Central and Western Asia, as well as in the Caucasus.

  • Tataki

  • Tempering - several meanings depending on the context:                                                                    Tempering (chocolate), a method of increasing the shine and durability of chocolate couverture           Tempering (cooking) — bringing meat to room temperature before cooking; or bringing food up to temperature slowly as in sous vide                                                                                                                      Tempering (spices) – a cooking technique and garnish used in the cuisines of India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan, in which whole spices (and sometimes also other ingredients such as minced ginger root or sugar) are fried briefly in oil or ghee to liberate essential oils from cells and thus enhance their flavours, before being poured, together with the oil, into a dish.

  • Tenderizing – a process to break down collagens in meat to make it more palatable for consumption

  • Teriyaki

  • Thermal cooking – uses the concept of the haybox whereby placing hay or straw around a cooking pot of heated food the meal continues to cook without fuel.

  • Thermization – a method of sterilizing raw milk with heat

  • Thickening

  • Transglutaminase – a protein binder, called meat glue

  • Truss - to tie the legs and wings of poultry in a way that promotes even cooking [17]

  • Turbo cooking

  • Turkey fryer


  • Vietnamese cooking techniques – Many common culinary terms exist that are unique to Vietnam


  • Whip

  • Wok cooking – The wok is used in a significant amount of cooking methods.


  • Zest - the colourful outer layer of citrus fruits, often scraped off and used as a flavouring ingredient

Gluten Free Bread

3 x GF Pamela mix

1 and 1/2 cup vegetable oil

8 Eggs

4 and 1/2  cup warm water

3x East from inside the gluten free mix

2 and 1/4  Tea Spoon Salt 

5 Hands Pumpkin and Sunflower seed mix

 Mix all ingredients apart from the seed together

 Mix for three minutes and add the seeds. Mix lightly.

Divide the mixture equally into 4 bread pans. Cover the pens.

Let it rice for 90 minutes in warm place.

Bake it in preheated oven by 400F for 50 minutes. Open the pens and bake for 10 more  minutes.